Search for power
This is how it starts.......
When we begin modifying the car , we get more power which equels more heat being produced.
This puts alot of stress on the cooling parts of the engine, oil temperature starts running away, coolant temperature getting out of hand, air inlet temperature, and so the story goes....
Lets discuss oil Coolers.
To put it simply, an oil cooler is basically a radiator with oil running through it instead of water.
Oil coolers are an important part in keeping any well running engine continually running well even when pushed to the limits. Maintaining a proper oil temperature is important not only to keep the oil at its proper lubricating state, but also to help the engine coolant in keeping the engine cool.
Most production cars these day uses a Heat exchanger for both cooling and heating the fluids.On Cold starts the oil and water will help each other get to working temperature.But when things really get hot the oil temperature can make the coolant temperature rise and vice versa.With these setups there is the risk of rupture in the heat exchanger, this can let the fluid with the higher pressure into the lower pressure side, which could lead to oil or water dilution and the end of your engine, or transmission.
The basic rule of thumb,install as big an oil cooler as can fit in a space that have good airflow, and then later add a thermostat so that the oil can be kept at a proper temperature. If your cooler is too efficient, tape or block off part of it to bring oil temperatures back up to the desired temperature.
The oil cooler is designed to come in a one pass, or multiple pass design. This means the amount of times the oil will pass across the length of the cooler before it exits. The idea being that the more passes the oil makes across the cooling front, the more heat the oil will be able to shed. Another important part of the design is inlet and outlet size. Be sure to choose a size that will not be too small and restrictive, as this will cause a drop in oil pressure.
Usually -8an or -10 an size fittings are sufficient. Also be sure to try and minimize length and number of bends in the oil lines as your run them to the coolers location.
A cars engine is happiest when it has good, clean oil running through it. To do this oil wants to be between 82 - 98 degrees Celcuis. If the oil is too hot, it will start to break down and separate causing the oil to thin, and the oil pressure to drop to dangerous levels. Having oil that is too cold can be damaging as well since the oil will not be up to temperature and not at its proper viscosity level. The best solution is to add a thermostatic controlled oil cooler.
What the thermostat does is keep the oil cooler semi closed, so that oil can be quickly brought up to temperature. Then the cooler is variably opened to maintain proper oil temperatures. If you opt to not install an oil cooler thermostat, make sure to warm your car up before driving to give the oil time to heat up to a proper level.
Choosing the Oil cooler location could be tricky, You want good airflow over it, but protect it from the elements, remember this is your engines life blood. If you spring a leak the engine will die. Make sure high quality oil ines are used, preferably metal reiforced and metal shielded hose, and strapped all along the underbody of your car.
Rain and snow can alter your running temperature immensely, but you wont know if this is the case, unless you have fitted a gauge to this system.
SAiC's products is designed specifically for this.
HOLDING BOOST PRESSURE FOR LONGER
An internal wastegate has valve is built into the turbine housing.The wastegate valve is controlled by an actuator.
This valve bleeds exhaust pressure before the turbine wheel to get the turbo to boost the pressure desired.
Internal wastegate actuators are made up of a sealed canister with a diaphragm and spring, with a rod connected to the valve inside the turbine housing
Upgraded internal wastegate actuators are highly adjustable, with a wide variety of springs available .
Made from high quality materials which can withstand high stresses and temperatures for prolonged periods.
They have silicone diaphragms with nomex reinforcement to withstand high working pressures and high temperature.
Providing better turbo response and greater sensitivity when managing boost pressures.
Choosing the right spring is important , you will need 50% of your intended boost setting .
On a 1,5 bar map it will be a 0,75 spring. Or even a little lower as you can preload these springs.
Now this is where the dilema comes in, factory boost targets are set quite low for engine reliability.
On a factory boost setting of say 0.7 bar boost , you might have an actuator that is preset to 0,3 bar, when you try and turn up the boost via software you will have a difficult time controlling the boost over the whole rev range.
The valve might even be blown open due to turbo inlet pressure getting too high. Waistegate duty cycles will have to be maxed out to even try and control it.
Springs can be interchanged by opening the canister and resealing it after intallation of the new spring.
Its really advisable to set your opening pressure using a wastegate setting tool.
Just a word on preload, the amount of preload in mm's wil take away from the distance the valve will open inside the chamber.
Cold air intakes or ram intakes
One of the very first mods to do on a performance car.
When you buy a performance car you want to hear it right?
Manufactures design and build intakes to fit snugly, packaged neatly and to support the intended power levels and noise levels. Most are just put together from parts in the vehicle range, with the small alteration here and there to acomodate sensors or what ever.
Take the Fiesta range, you will see the same airbox on most of these cars, being 1.0 Eco boost 1.4 N/A and even the ST. Focus Range is the same. Take the MK2 RS, its got the same box as the 1.6 Focus with a small pipe added. Then it reappear in the ST250 range.
Now enough about that.
Why do you need an Intake? short answer is, AIR FLOW!
The intake of a car opens to atmospheric pressure. at sea level it will be 14.6 psi positive pressure. Now if the flow into the engine is constricted it might loose some of that free pressure. So in fact you are loosing free power.
Even worse on an turbo car that will suck twice as much . More flow more loss due to pressure drop.
So we see that even on an Intake there can be pressure drop due to irregular shapes and flow constrictions and filter materials. So the goal is to make it flow better.
The MORE air you can get in the MORE power you can get out!!